TorqueGlide: A Topical Gel Roller for Neurological Support and Pain Relief

TorqueGlide: A Topical Gel Roller for Neurological Support and Pain Relief

Migraine and chronic pain conditions can significantly reduce quality of life. TorqueGlide is a topical gel roller designed to provide neurological support and pain relief through a blend of research-backed natural ingredients. We will examine the key ingredients in TorqueGlide and analyze the current research of their mechanisms and efficacy for pain relief.

The gel roller delivery method allows the active ingredients to be directly absorbed through the skin for localized effects. The rollerball applicator cools on contact for additional migraine and pain relief. Using TorqueGlide involves simply rolling the applicator over the affected area to apply the active formula (please see the instructions for more detail).

The ingredients work through various mechanisms when absorbed via the transdermal route. These include gate control theory of pain, counterirritation, anti-inflammatory effects, antioxidant properties, and modulation of pain signaling pathways. Current evidence indicates TorqueGlide's potential as an integrative topical therapy to reduce migraine, chronic and acute pain, and support overall neurological health.

Let’s first explain the gate control theory of pain and counterirritation.

Several of the ingredients in TorqueGlide work through the gate control theory of pain. This theory, first proposed in 1965 by Ronald Melzack and Patrick Wall, suggests that pain perception is not a direct result of nociceptive (pain) signaling, but is modulated by interaction between nociceptive inputs and non-nociceptive inputs in the spinal cord [1]. Essentially, “gates” in the spinal cord can increase or decrease pain signaling to the brain based on the relative amounts of nociceptive and non-nociceptive input. Non-nociceptive input “closes the gates” and prevents pain signals from reaching the brain. We know this instinctually. It is why we hold a toe we just stubbed or rub on an acutely painful injury.

Another relevant mechanism is counterirritation, which refers to the process of using one irritant stimulus to reduce the sensation of another irritant. For example, applying heat or cold to an injured area activates nerve fibers that compete with and partially override pain signals, providing temporary pain relief [2].

Key Ingredients in TorqueGlide

Menthol

Menthol is known to activate transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8 (TRPM8) receptors, which are cold-sensitive and provide a cooling sensation [3]. This activation provides non-nociceptive input that can “close the gate” to pain signals. Menthol has been shown in studies to reduce migraine pain, allodynia (pain from stimuli that do not normally cause pain), musculoskeletal pain, neuropathic pain, and pain from sports injuries [4,5]. The percentage of menthol used is also crucial as “low to moderate concentrations of menthol activate TRPM8 in the primary nociceptors, such as dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and trigeminal ganglion, generating a cooling sensation, whereas menthol at higher concentration could induce cold allodynia, and cold hyperalgesia mediated by TRPM8 sensitization” [6]. TorqueGlide uses just the right percentage of menthol to achieve pain relief without causing cold allodynia or hyperalgesia.

Curcumin C3 Complex®

Curcumin is the main active compound in turmeric that has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in studies [7]. Curcumin C3 Complex® is a patented composition containing three potent curcuminoids - curcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, and demethoxycurcumin. Research shows topical curcumin, like that in TorqueGlide, has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on skin [8,9]. It reduces levels of CGRP, a neuropeptide involved in migraine pain [10]. In clinical trials, topical curcumin gel had similar efficacy to ibuprofen for the treatment of knee arthritis, but with fewer gastrointestinal symptoms [11]. It also decreased joint pain in knee osteoarthritis comparable to diclofenac [12]. A meta-analysis study has also found that curcumin is associated with beneficial effects on the skin, including, but not limited to, an increase in skin moisture, prevention of chronic ultraviolet B damage, and prevention of facial redness from rosacea or flushing [13]. The transdermal application of curcumin protects the skin by neutralizing free radicals, reducing inflammation through the inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B, and affecting other signaling pathways like transforming growth factor-β and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. It also modulates phase II detoxification enzymes, crucial for detoxification reactions and protection against oxidative stress [14].

 BioPerine®

BioPerine is a patented black pepper extract containing 95% piperine. Piperine enhances the absorption and bioavailability of other compounds like curcumin [15]. Like menthol, BioPerine in TorqueGlide may provide pain relief via the gate control theory of pain without the potential of skin irritation [15].

Boswellia Serrata Extract

Boswellia serrata produces resin that contains active phytochemical compounds including boswellic acids. Boswellia extract has been used for centuries for its anti-inflammatory effects. Recent research has further explored the pharmacological actions and therapeutic potential of Boswellia serrata extract.

Studies demonstrate that Boswellia extract exhibits neuroprotective qualities. The boswellic acids appear to modulate inflammatory pathways and prevent oxidative damage in the brain [16]. This neuroprotective effect may have implications for treating neurodegenerative disorders.

Applied topically, Boswellia extract has been shown to reduce skin photoaging and wrinkling. In one clinical study, a cream with Boswellia extract improved fine lines, elasticity, and skin roughness compared to placebo [17]. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties are believed to mitigate UV damage responses.

The illustrated summary of the cosmetic uses of B. Serrata [18].

The illustrated summary of the cosmetic uses of B. Serrata [18].

Research shows the potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of Boswellia serrata [19-23]. The boswellic acids inhibit pro-inflammatory enzymes like 5-LOX and human leukocyte elastase. Boswellia extract also exhibits free radical scavenging activity and boosts the body’s antioxidant defenses. These combined actions suppress inflammation and may confer therapeutic benefits for inflammatory diseases.

Current evidence also suggests that Boswellia extract is an effective and safe treatment option for osteoarthritis due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, and analgesic effects [24]. Moreover, topical treatment appears to result in significant increases in synovial concentration and therapeutic efficacy thereby confirming its transdermal application and the potential to be a disease-modifying agent in osteoarthritis [25]. Another study found that boswellic acids decreased pain severity and improved function in patients with knee osteoarthritis [26].

Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels appear associated with chronic migraine and especially evident in people with migraine with aura [27]. Boswellia extract can significantly decrease CRP levels [28], which may mitigate migraine frequency and severity. A clinical trial also found that Boswellia extract reduced pain intensity and frequency in patients with chronic cluster headaches [29]. The anti-inflammatory effects likely contribute to Boswellia’s efficacy for headache disorders.

Studies also report synergistic effects of combining Boswellia serrata extract with curcumin. This combination found in TorqueGlide enhances anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and analgesic activities compared to either compound alone [30, 31].

Ilex Paraguariensis 

Ilex paraguariensis, commonly known as yerba mate, is a plant containing bioactive compounds such as polyphenols and xanthines that has traditionally been used to manage nerve pain, arthritis, and headache. Emerging research now demonstrates that Ilex paraguariensis extracts exhibit analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, suggesting therapeutic potential for pain relief.

Studies show that Ilex paraguariensis and its extracts have measurable analgesic activity [32]. This is believed to be related to modulation of the noradrenergic system [33]. Noradrenaline is involved in descending inhibition of pain, and dysregulation of this neurotransmitter pathway contributes to migraine pathogenesis. Compounds in Ilex paraguariensis may act by normalizing noradrenergic signaling to reduce pain perception. One study found that it was this same modulation of the noradrenergic system that effectively promoted orofacial pain relief in mice upon the application of Ilex paraguariensis [34].

In animal models, yerba mate extract significantly alleviated neuropathic pain induced by nerve injuries [35]. It showed analgesic effects comparable to pregabalin, a first-line medication for neuropathic pain in humans and a migraine prevention treatment option. The researchers suggested yerba mate may be useful in integrative treatment plans for neuropathic pain disorders.

In addition to analgesic effects, Ilex paraguariensis exhibits anti-inflammatory properties. Aqueous extracts of yerba mate reduced inflammation markers in vitro, including nitric oxide production and gene expression of inflammatory cytokines [36]. The anti-inflammatory activity likely complements the pain-relieving effects.

Ilex paraguariensis shows an important immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory profile [36].

Ilex paraguariensis shows an important immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory profile [36].

Ilex paraguariensis shows promise as a therapeutic and preventive agent for migraine, inflammatory, neuropathic, and orofacial pain conditions. The analgesic mechanisms are linked to modulation of noradrenergic pathways and anti-inflammatory effects.

Helichrysum Oil 

Helichrysum oil has demonstrated anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anti-allergy effects in studies (37-40). It contains compounds like arzanol that may reduce neuroinflammation [41].

Uncaria Tomentosa 

Uncaria tomentosa, also known as cat’s claw due to the claw-like thorns on its stem, is a woody vine with a long history of use in traditional herbal medicine for treating inflammatory conditions. Recent research has explored the mechanisms and efficacy of Uncaria tomentosa extracts for reducing inflammatory pain.

Studies suggest that Uncaria tomentosa extracts may help provide relief from cutaneous (skin) pain [42]. In vitro experiments have shown the extract has significant activity at various pain receptor sites involved in nociception [43]. These include agonistic effects on μ-opioid, δ-opioid, and CB2 receptors, as well as antagonistic effects on PAR-2 receptors that mediate neurogenic inflammation. One study found reduced osteoarthritis pain and inflammation with use of the extract [44] and another found benefit for its use with patients with active rheumatoid arthritis [45].

In addition to pain relief, Uncaria tomentosa appears to exert anti-neuroinflammatory effects. Chronic inflammation can sensitize pain pathways in the nervous system. Compounds in cat’s claw extracts block inflammatory mediators and may mitigate neuroinflammation that contributes to chronic pain [46,47]. This anti-inflammatory activity likely complements the analgesic effects of Uncaria tomentosa.

Uncaria tomentosa represents a promising natural therapeutic for reducing inflammatory-mediated chronic pain. The combined analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties may benefit cutaneous pain as well as pain disorders associated with neuroinflammation.

TorqueGlide combines multiple natural ingredients backed by scientific research for neurological support and pain relief. The synergistic blend works through counterirritation, anti-inflammatory effects, and modulating pain signaling pathways. Current evidence indicates TorqueGlide’s potential as an integrative method to reduce migraines, chronic pain, and support overall neurological health.

References

  1. Melzack R, Wall PD. Pain mechanisms: a new theory. Science. 1965;150(3699):971-979.
  2. Moayedi M, Davis KD. Theories of pain: from specificity to gate control. J Neurophysiol. 2013;109(1):5-12.
  3. Liu B, Fan L, Balakrishna S, Sui A, Morris JB, Jordt SE. TRPM8 is the principal mediator of menthol-induced analgesia of acute and inflammatory pain. Pain. 2013;154(10):2169-2177.
  4. Borhani Haghighi, A., Motazedian, S., Rezaii, R., Mohammadi, F., Salarian, L., Pourmokhtari, M., Khodaei, S., Vossoughi, M. and Miri, R. (2010), Cutaneous application of menthol 10% solution as an abortive treatment of migraine without aura: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossed-over study. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 64: 451-456. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-1241.2009.02215.x
  5. Pergolizzi, JVTaylor, RLeQuang, J-ARaffa, RBfor the NEMA Research GroupThe role and mechanism of action of menthol in topical analgesic productsJ Clin Pharm Ther201843313– 319https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpt.12679
  6. Liu, B., & Wang, Y. (2022). The distinctive role of menthol in pain and analgesia mediated by TRPM8 sensitization. Frontiers in molecular neuroscience, 15, 1006908. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2022.1006908
  7. Prasad S, Gupta SC, Tyagi AK, Aggarwal BB. Curcumin, a component of golden spice: from bedside to bench and back. Biotechnol Adv. 2014;32(6):1053-1064.
  8. Heng MCY (2017) Topical Curcumin: A Review of Mechanisms and uses in Dermatology. Int J Dermatol Clin Res 3(1):010-017. DOI: 10.17352/2455-8605.000020
  9. Menon, V.P., Sudheer, A.R. (2007). ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY PROPERTIES OF CURCUMIN. In: Aggarwal, B.B., Surh, YJ., Shishodia, S. (eds) The Molecular Targets and Therapeutic Uses of Curcumin in Health and Disease. ADVANCES IN EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY, vol 595. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-46401-5_3
  10. Rezaie S, Askari G, Khorvash F, Tarrahi MJ, Amani R. Effects of Curcumin Supplementation on Clinical Features and Inflammation, in Migraine Patients: A Double-Blind Controlled, Placebo Randomized Clinical Trial. Int J Prev Med. 2021 Dec 1;12:161. doi: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_405_20. PMID: 35070194; PMCID: PMC8724631.
  11. Kuptniratsaikul V, Dajpratham P, Taechaarpornkul W, et al. Efficacy and safety of Curcuma domestica extracts compared with ibuprofen in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a multicenter study. Clin Interv Aging. 2014;9:451-458.
  12. Shep, D., Khanwelkar, C., Gade, P. et al.Safety and efficacy of curcumin versus diclofenac in knee osteoarthritis: a randomized open-label parallel-arm study. Trials20, 214 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-019-3327-2
  13. Barbalho SM, de Sousa Gonzaga HF, de Souza GA, de Alvares Goulart R, de Sousa Gonzaga ML, de Alvarez Rezende B. Dermatological effects of Curcuma species: a systematic review. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2021 Jul;46(5):825-833. doi: 10.1111/ced.14584. Epub 2021 Mar 15. PMID: 33522006.
  14. Thangapazham, R.L., Sharad, S. and Maheshwari, R.K. (2013), Skin regenerative potentials of curcumin. BioFactors, 39: 141-149. https://doi.org/10.1002/biof.1078
  15. Meyer R. Rosen (ed.), Delivery System Handbook for Personal Care and Cosmetic Products, 157-178. Available at: https://sabinsa.com/newsroom/articles/2005Tetrahydropiperine.pdf
  16. Rajabian A, Sadeghnia H, Fanoudi S, Hosseini A. Genus Boswelliaas a new candidate for neurodegenerative disorders. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2020 Mar;23(3):277-286. doi: 10.22038/IJBMS.2020.35288.8419. PMID: 32440312; PMCID: PMC7229515.
  17. Pedretti A, Capezzera R, Zane C, Facchinetti E, Calzavara-Pinton P. Effects of topical boswellic acid on photo and age-damaged skin: clinical, biophysical, and echographic evaluations in a double-blind, randomized, split-face study. Planta Med. 2010 Apr;76(6):555-60. doi: 10.1055/s-0029-1240581. Epub 2009 Nov 16. PMID: 19918712.
  18. Alraddadi BG, Shin H-J. Biochemical Properties and Cosmetic Uses of Commiphora myrrhaand Boswellia serrataCosmetics. 2022; 9(6):119. https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9060119
  19. Togni S, Maramaldi G, Bonetta A, Giacomelli L, Di Pierro F. Clinical evaluation of safety and efficacy of Boswellia-based cream for prevention of adjuvant radiotherapy skin damage in mammary carcinoma: a randomized placebo controlled trial. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015 Apr;19(8):1338-44. PMID: 25967706.
  20. Moussaieff A, Shohami E, Kashman Y, Fride E, Schmitz ML, Renner F, Fiebich BL, Munoz E, Ben-Neriah Y, Mechoulam R. Incensole acetate, a novel anti-inflammatory compound isolated from Boswellia resin, inhibits nuclear factor-kappa B activation. Mol Pharmacol. 2007 Dec;72(6):1657-64. doi: 10.1124/mol.107.038810. Epub 2007 Sep 25. PMID: 17895408.
  21. Doaee P, Rajaei Z, Roghani M, Alaei H, Kamalinejad M. Effects of Boswellia serrataresin extract on motor dysfunction and brain oxidative stress in an experimental model of Parkinson's disease. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2019 May-Jun;9(3):281-290. PMID: 31143695; PMCID: PMC6526039.
  22. Thomas Efferth, Franz Oesch, Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities of frankincense: Targets, treatments and toxicities, Seminars in Cancer Biology, Volume 80, 2022, Pages 39-57, ISSN 1044-579X, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.semcancer.2020.01.015.
  23. Hartmann, R.M., Morgan Martins, M.I., Tieppo, J. et al.Effect of Boswellia serrataon Antioxidant Status in an Experimental Model of Colitis Rats Induced by Acetic Acid. Dig Dis Sci 57, 2038–2044 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10620-012-2134-3
  24. Yu G, Xiang W, Zhang T, Zeng L, Yang K, Li J. Effectiveness of Boswellia and Boswellia extract for osteoarthritis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Complement Med Ther. 2020 Jul 17;20(1):225. doi: 10.1186/s12906-020-02985-6. PMID: 32680575; PMCID: PMC7368679.
  25. Wang Q, Pan X, Wong HH, Wagner CA, Lahey LJ, Robinson WH, Sokolove J. Oral and topical boswellic acid attenuates mouse osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2014 Jan;22(1):128-32. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2013.10.012. Epub 2013 Nov 1. PMID: 24185109; PMCID: PMC3992997.
  26. Mohsenzadeh, A., Karimifar, M., Soltani, R. et al.Evaluation of the effectiveness of topical oily solution containing frankincense extract in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. BMC Res Notes16, 28 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-023-06291-5
  27. Hagen, K., Stovner, L.J., Nilsen, K.B. et al.The impact of C-reactive protein levels on headache frequency in the HUNT study 2006–2008. BMC Neurol19, 229 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12883-019-1462-8
  28. Majeed M, Majeed S, Narayanan NK, Nagabhushanam K. A pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of a novel Boswellia serrata extract in the management of osteoarthritis of the knee. Phytother Res. 2019 May;33(5):1457-1468. doi: 10.1002/ptr.6338. Epub 2019 Mar 6. PMID: 30838706; PMCID: PMC6681146.
  29. Lampl C, Haider B, Schweiger C. Long-term efficacy of Boswellia serrata in four patients with chronic cluster headache. Cephalalgia. 2012;32(9):719-722. doi:10.1177/0333102412451357
  30. Sethi V, Garg M, Herve M, Mobasheri A. Potential complementary and/or synergistic effects of curcumin and boswellic acids for management of osteoarthritis. Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis. 2022 Sep 22;14:1759720X221124545. doi: 10.1177/1759720X221124545. PMID: 36171802; PMCID: PMC9511324.
  31. Karlapudi V, Prasad Mungara AVV, Sengupta K, Davis BA, Raychaudhuri SP. A Placebo-Controlled Double-Blind Study Demonstrates the Clinical Efficacy of a Novel Herbal Formulation for Relieving Joint Discomfort in Human Subjects with Osteoarthritis of Knee. J Med Food. 2018 May;21(5):511-520. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2017.0065. Epub 2018 Apr 30. PMID: 29708818.
  32. Nowacki LC, Stechman-Neto J, Schiefer EM, Santos AF, Stinghen AEM, Sassaki GL, De Souza LM, Cristoff KE, De Souza WM. Ilex paraguariensisextract as an alternative to pain medications. Acta Pharm. 2020 Dec 31;71(3):383-398. doi: 10.2478/acph-2021-0029. PMID: 36654097.
  33. D'Andrea, G., D'Arrigo, A., Dalle Carbonare, M. and Leon, A. (2012), Pathogenesis of Migraine: Role of Neuromodulators. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 52: 1155-1163. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-4610.2012.02168.x
  34. de Carvalho EF, de Oliveira SK, Nardi VK, Gelinski TC, Bortoluzzi MC, Maraschin M, Nardi GM. Ilex paraguariensis Promotes Orofacial Pain Relief After Formalin Injection: Involvement of Noradrenergic Pathway. Pharmacognosy Res. 2016 Mar;8(Suppl 1):S31-7. doi: 10.4103/0974-8490.178643. PMID: 27114689; PMCID: PMC4821104.
  35. Lim DW, Kim JG, Han T, Jung SK, Lim EY, Han D, Kim YT. Analgesic Effect of Ilex paraguariensis Extract on Postoperative and Neuropathic Pain in Rats. Biol Pharm Bull. 2015;38(10):1573-9. doi: 10.1248/bpb.b15-00360. Epub 2015 Jul 31. PMID: 26228736.
  36. Ana Beatriz Gobbo Luz, Carlos Henrique Blum da Silva, Marcus Vinicius P.S. Nascimento, Bruno Matheus de Campos Facchin, Bruna Baratto, Tânia Silvia Fröde, Flávio Henrique Reginatto, Eduardo Monguilhott Dalmarco, The anti-inflammatory effect of Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil (Mate) in a murine model of pleurisy, International Immunopharmacology, Volume 36, 2016, Pages 165-172, ISSN 1567-5769, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2016.04.027.
  37. Zhonghua Mao, Chunli Gan, Jiuxin Zhu, Nan Ma, Lijun Wu, Libo Wang, Xiaobo Wang, Anti-atherosclerotic activities of flavonoids from the flowers of Helichrysum arenarium L. MOENCH through the pathway of anti-inflammation, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, Volume 27, Issue 12, 2017, Pages 2812-2817, ISSN 0960-894X, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2017.04.076.
  38. Antonia Nostro, Giuseppe Bisignano, Maria Angela Cannatelli, Giuseppe Crisafi, Maria Paola Germanò, Vittorio Alonzo, Effects of Helichrysum italicum extract on growth and enzymatic activity of Staphylococcus aureus, International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, Volume 17, Issue 6, 2001, Pages 517-520, ISSN 0924-8579, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-8579(01)00336-3.
  39. Bouzid D, Zerroug MM. Evaluation of in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don essential oil. Der Pharmacia Lettre. 2016;8(4):41-44. Available online at: http://dspace.univ-setif.dz:8888/jspui/bitstream/123456789/2583/1/BOUZID%20DJIHANE%202.pdf. ISSN 0975-5071.
  40. Marija S. GenčićJelena M. AksićMilena Z. Živković StošićMiljana R. ĐorđevićMarko Z. MladenovićNiko S. Radulović. (2022) New neryl esters from Helichrysum italicum(Roth) G. Don (Asteraceae) essential oilNatural Product Research36:8, pages 2002-2008.
  41. Kothavade PS, Nagmoti DM, Bulani VD, Juvekar AR. Arzanol, a potent mPGES-1 inhibitor: novel anti-inflammatory agent. ScientificWorldJournal. 2013 Oct 1;2013:986429. doi: 10.1155/2013/986429. PMID: 24198734; PMCID: PMC3807707.
  42. Stockman, A., Belpaire, A., Hadshiew, I.M., Žemličkova, M., Vergou, T., Navarro Triviño, F., Márquez García, A., Vasco, M., Vazharova, B.K. and Carballido, F. (2022), Dermo-cosmetic spray containing Rhealba oat plantlets and Uncaria tomentosaextract in patients with mild-to-moderate cutaneous pain. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol, 36: 3-11. https://doi.org/10.1111/jdv.17876
  43. Riva L, Coradini D, Di Fronzo G, De Feo V, De Tommasi N, De Simone F, Pizza C. The antiproliferative effects of Uncaria tomentosa extracts and fractions on the growth of breast cancer cell line. Anticancer Res. 2001 Jul-Aug;21(4A):2457-61. PMID: 11724307.
  44. Piscoya J, Rodriguez Z, Bustamante SA, Okuhama NN, Miller MJ, Sandoval M. Efficacy and safety of freeze-dried cat's claw in osteoarthritis of the knee: mechanisms of action of the species Uncaria guianensis. Inflamm Res. 2001 Sep;50(9):442-8. doi: 10.1007/PL00000268. PMID: 11603848.
  45. Mur E, Hartig F, Eibl G, Schirmer M. Randomized double blind trial of an extract from the pentacyclic alkaloid-chemotype of uncaria tomentosa for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2002 Apr;29(4):678-81. PMID: 11950006.
  46. Sandoval M, Okuhama NN, Zhang XJ, Condezo LA, Lao J, Angeles' FM, Musah RA, Bobrowski P, Miller MJ. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa and Uncaria guianensis) are independent of their alkaloid content. Phytomedicine. 2002 May;9(4):325-37. doi: 10.1078/0944-7113-00117. PMID: 12120814.
  47. Allen-Hall L, Cano P, Arnason JT, Rojas R, Lock O, Lafrenie RM. Treatment of THP-1 cells with Uncaria tomentosa extracts differentially regulates the expression if IL-1beta and TNF-alpha. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Jan 19;109(2):312-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2006.07.039. Epub 2006 Aug 3. PMID: 16959454.
Back to blog
1 of 4